R Language Definition

Table of Contents

Operators reference

- Minus, can be unary or binary
+ Plus, can be unary or binary
! Unary not
~ Tilde, used for model formulae, can be either unary or binary
? Help
: Sequence, binary (in model formulae: interaction)
* Multiplication, binary
/ Division, binary
^ Exponentiation, binary
%x% Special binary operators, x can be replaced by any valid name
%% Modulus, binary
%/% Integer divide, binary
%*% Matrix product, binary
%o% Outer product, binary
%x% Kronecker product, binary
%in% Matching operator, binary (in model formulae: nesting)
< Less than, binary
> Greater than, binary
== Equal to, binary
>= Greater than or equal to, binary
<= Less than or equal to, binary
& And, binary, vectorized
&& And, binary, not vectorized
| Or, binary, vectorized
|| Or, binary, not vectorized
<- Left assignment, binary
-> Right assignment, binary
$ List subset, binary

Quotes reference

`a + b` <- 3
`:)` <- "smile"
`    ` <- "spaces"
[1] "    "  ":)"    "a + b"
[1] "smile"

You can also create non-syntactic bindings using single and double quotes instead of backticks, but I don’t recommend it. The ability to use strings on the left hand side of the assignment arrow is a historical artifact, used before R supported backticks.

Assignment: <- and <<- reference

Access the value of last evaluated expression howto

[1] 10
[1] 10